Written by many scientists and clinicians from China, USA, Canada and other countries, this monograph discusses translational research on acupuncture. Besides general topics on acupuncture practice (e.g., different styles and techniques of acupuncture), topics include some refractory diseases such as chronic fatigue syndrome, Parkinson’s disease, cardiovascular dysfunction, chronic pain, post-concussion syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder and cancer-related symptoms. The factors influencing acupuncture research are comprehensively addressed in the final chapter. This unique book provides a translational perspective on modern acupuncture for not only acupuncturists, but also neuroscientists, neurologists, and other clinicians. For medical students and undergraduate and graduate students majoring in biology, this book is an advanced course for learning the progress in alternative and complementary Medicine.