Acute kidney failure is an important clinical area in the intensive care unit setting. An estimated 5–20% of critically ill patients experience an episode of acute kidney failure during the course of their illness, and about 5% of patients admitted to an ICU will eventually require renal replacement therapy. In these patients, in-hospital mortality is extremely high, exceeding 50%. Thus, the early detection and causal treatment of acute kidney problems is vitally important for a successful outcome. Written by internationally renowned experts, this clinical reference offers helpful advice with the most recent information on the definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical causes of acute kidney failure as a fundamental prerequisite for prevention of this disorder. Moreover, it also covers differential diagnostic approaches for patients with acute renal failure and provides a detailed outline of important measures for their clinical management. Finally, separate chapters are dedicated to various key aspects related to the adequate delivery of acute renal replacement therapy. It is intended as a helpful guide for all clinicians involved in the care of patients at risk of developing acute kidney problems.