In addition to the issues constituting the basis of microbial biotechnology, such as microorganisms culturing or their use in industry and environmental protection, the book includes modern analytical techniques known as „omics”, as well as digital techniques used to record adverse changes in the environment those resulting from the harmful activity of bacteria and fungi. A color atlas (Chapter 8) with photos of the fungi discussed in each chapter was also inclued. The book was prepared with the use of many years of scientific and didactic experience of the authors who conduct classes in various fields and specializations of natural sciences. This resulted in the interdisciplinary nature of the publication. It will be useful not only for PhD students and students of biotechnology and microbiology, but also environmental protection, ecological biotechnology, urban revitalization, as well as all those interested in applying the latest achievements of these areas of science in practice.